- History of Weaving Machine.
Weaving is technique of fabric production. It consists of intertwining of two separate yarns or threads at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Those two threads are called warp and the weft. Fabric is usually woven on a loom which is a device that holds the warp threads in place while weft is woven through them. There are also other methods of weaving. The method where the warp and weft interlace with each other is called the weave. The basic types of weave are plain weave, satin weave and twill which give different patterns and textures of fabrics for different uses.
Humans know about weaving since Paleolithic era. Flax weavings are found in Fayum, Egypt, dating from around 5000 BC. First popular fiber in ancient Egypt was flax, which was replaced by wool around 2000 BC. By the beginning of counting the time weaving was known in all the great civilizations. Early looms need one or two persons to work on them. Bible refers to loom and weaving in many places.
The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving. The machine used for weaving is known as weaving machine or loom. In order to interlace warp and weft threads to produce a fabric, the following motions are necessary on any type of loom. Shedding, Picking, Beating, Let-off, Take-up are weaving loom motions.
The motions and their function on weaving machines or looms are as follows:-
Shedding. – To separate the warp thread into layers one layer is raised and the other lowered.
Picking. – To insert a weft thread across the warp Ends through the shed.
Beating-in. – To push the weft thread that has been inserted across the war ends, up to the cloth fell.
“Shedding” is the process of creating an open path across and through the warp yarns by raising some warp threads by their harnesses and leaving others down. While the shed is open, the filling yarn is inserted. The shed is then changed as dictated by the pattern. The three methods of creating a shed are cam shedding, dobby shedding, and jacquard shedding.
“Filling insertion” refers to insertion of the weft yarn, or filling, into the warp shed. The oldest filling insertion method is with a shuttle. Newer methods include rapier, projectile, air-jet, and water-jet systems.
The common methods of weft insertion in weaving machines are shuttle, rapier, air jet, water jet and projectile insertion. During weft insertion in the weaving process, a variety of demands are to be fulfilled. Besides transportation of the weft yarn, three of the most relevant demands are energy efficiency, productivity and flexibility. These demands are only partially met by the common methods of weft insertion. This paper describes the investigation of a novel method of weft insertion, which combines the advantages of common insertion methods whilst avoiding their deficits. The developed weft insertion is based on the principle of a magnetic force for the controlled transport of the weft yarn. The new method allows a potential energy saving of about 60% compared to a conventional air jet weaving machine. At the same time, industrially experienced weft insertion rates of about 2000?m/min are within reach.