- What is Shaper Machine.
A Shaper Machine is a special kind of manufacturing machine that uses liner reciprocating motion of single point cutting tool to generate a linear tool path.
The shaper machine is a reciprocating type of machine basically used for producing the horizontal, vertical or flat surfaces. The shaper holds the single point cutting tool in ram and workpiece is fixed in the table.
During the forward stroke, the ram is holding the tool is reciprocating over the workpiece to cut into the required shape. During the return stroke, No metal is cutting. In the shaper machine, the rotary motion of the drive is converted into reciprocating motion of ram holding the tool. The shaper process can be defined as a process for removing metal from the surface in horizontal, vertical and angular planes by the use of a single-point cutting tool held in a ram that reciprocates the tool in a linear direction across the workpiece held on the table of the machine. The work is fed at right angles to the direction of the ram in small increments, at the end of the return stroke.
- Working of Shaper Machine.
In the Shaper machine a single point Cutting Tool is rigidly mounted on the tool holder, which is mounted on the ram. The work piece is held rigidly in a vice (or clamped directly on the table).
The ram reciprocates and thus cutting tool held in tool holder moves backward and forward on the work piece.
In a standard shaper, cutting takes place during the forward stroke of the ram and the backward stroke remains idle.
- Parts of Shaper Machine
It is the main body of the machine. It consist all element of machine. It works as pillar for other parts. Base is made by cast iron which can take all compressive loads.
It is the main part of the shaper machine. It holds the tool and provides the reciprocating motion to it. It is made by cast iron and move over ways on column. It is attached by the rocker arm which provide it motion in crank driven machine and if the machine is hydraulic driven it is attached by hydraulic housing.
3. Tool head:
It is situated at the front of the ram. Its main function is to hold the cutting tool. The tool can be adjusted on it by some of clamps.
It is the metal body attached over the frame. Its main function is to hold the work piece and vice over it. It has two T slots which used to clamp vice and work piece over it.
5. Clapper box:
It carries the tool holder. The main function of clapper box is to provide clearance for tool in return stock. It prevents the cutting edge dragging the work piece while return stock and prevent tool wear.
Column is attached to the base. It provides the housing for the crank slider mechanism. The slide ways are attached upper section of column which provide path for ram motion.
7. Cross ways:
It consist vertical and horizontal table sideways which allow the motion of table. It is attach with some cross movement mechanism.
8. Stroke adjuster:
It is attached below the table. It is used to control the stroke length which further controls the ram movement.
9. Table supports:
These are attached front side of the table and used to support the weight of table during working.
In a manufacturing shop, shapers and planners are the commonly used machine tools, to machine flat surfaces. They have reciprocating movement for the single point tool and the job. During the forward stroke of the tool, job will be machined and during the backward stroke of the tool, the tool will be idling. The quick return mechanism of these machines, reduce the ineffective time and wastage of energy. For further reduction of the idling time, modified tool post with two clapper boxes and with two tools were designed, fabricated and tested. This arrangement ensures material removal during the return stroke. In this paper, results of the experiments conducted in order to save energy, machining time and improve productivity are reported. Keywords: Energy Conservation, Tool Post Modification